A terminal is a storage facility for refined products. Pipelines or tankers deliver crude and petrochemicals to the terminals for storage and redistribution. Typically a terminal will have more than one storage tank on site, which makes it a tank farm.
Aboveground storage tanks (AST) can be vertical or horizontal with various sizes and design features to accommodate the product stored. Storage tanks can store crude oil, petroleum feedstocks, intermediate stocks, or finished petroleum products. Some of these products are toxic, flammable, or corrosive, thus double bottoms and cathodic protection are common design features.
Underground storage tanks (UST) are defined as tanks with at least 10% of its volume underground. Due to corrosion and leaking problems, very few new USTs are installed today. Those that are in use typically have double or even triple walls to prevent leaks to the soil, which can contaminate drinking water.
Terminals & Storage Glossary